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BOOK The Federalist (No. 10) by James Madison book online wiki how to read

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Federalist No. 10 was the most famous of the Federalist Papers, along with Federalist No. 51. All of the Federalist Papers were written under the pseudonym Publius. The tenth Federalist paper was written on Friday, November 23, 1787 and argued for the ratification of the United States Constitution. No. 10 discusses methods of guarding against factions, or groups of citizens with interests that conflict with the interests of the whole community. Today we call these groups advocacy groups or special interest groups. Madison argued that a large, united republic would better guard against the dangers of factions than smaller republics like individual states. Jurists often interpret No. 10 to mean that the founding fathers did not intend for the United States government to be partisan. Before September 17, 1787, the Philadelphia Convention submitted the Constitution to the states for ratification. Anti-Federalist writers began publishing essays and letters arguing against ratification. Alexander Hamilton recruited James Madison and John Jay to write a series of pro-ratification letters in response. Federalist No. 10 continues the discussion began by Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 9. Hamilton addressed the destructive role of factions in breaking apart the republic. In Federalist No. 10, Madison addresses how to eliminate the negative effects of factions. A faction is defined as a group of citizens united by a common passion or interest that is adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the community as a whole. Madison identified the most serious source of factions to be the diversity of opinion in political life that leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as religion. The damage of factions can be limited in two ways: by removing the causes of factions or by controlling its effects. Madison says there are two ways to remove the causes that provoke the development of factions. The first, destroying the Liberty, would work because “liberty is to faction what air is to fire but not helpful because liberty is essential to political life. Americans fought for liberty during the American Revolution. The other option is to create a society that is homogenous in interests and opinions. Madison sees this as impractical. Madison goes on to express that people’s opinions are influenced by self-interest, and emotion. He says no one approaches the same situation in the same way. He concludes that damage caused by factions is best limited by controlling its effects.Madison then goes on to discuss majority and minority factions. He says majority factions are a problem because the principle of popular sovereignty should prevent minority factions from gaining power. He offers two ways to check majority factions: to prevent the “existence of the same passion or interest in a majority at the same time,” or render a majority faction unable to act. He concludes that a small democracy cannot avoid the dangers of majority faction because small size mean that undesirable passions can very easily spread to a majority of the people, which can then enact its will through the democratic government without difficulty. Madison’s next argument is in favor of a large republic over a small republic for the choice of “fit characters” to represent the public’s voice. In a large republic where the number of voters and candidates is greater, the probability to elect competent representatives is broader. The voters have a wider option. In a small republic it would be easier for the candidates to trick the voters. The opposite would be true in a larger republic. He goes on to contend that in a small republic there will be a smaller variety of interests and parties, so more often a majority will be found. The number of participants of that majority will be lower, and considering they live in a more rural territory, it would be easier for them to agree and work together for the accomplishment of their ideas. In a large republic the variety of interests will be greater so to make it harder to find a majority. Even if there were a majority it would be harder for them to work together because of the large number of people and the fact that they are spread out in a wider territory. A republic is different from a democracy because its government is put in the hands of delegates, and as a result, it can be extended over a larger area. In a larger republic there will be more “fit characters” to choose from for each delegate. In a large republic, it would be more difficult for a corrupt delegate to survive. The corrupt delegate would have many more people to bribe in order to win an election than in a small republic. Although Madison preferred large constituencies because he believed they provided better representatives, he noted that if the constituencies are too large, the representatives will be “too little acquainted with all their local circumstances and lesser interests.” He believed part of this problem was solved by federalism. With regards to federal representatives, he said no matter how large the constituencies were that state and local official that naturally had smaller constituencies would look after the local matters.

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